Traffic Penalty Tribunal

Glossary of Terms

Glossary C

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The action taken to cancel a Penalty Charge Notice and/or Notice to Owner and the need to pay the associated additional parking charges.

Certificated Bailiff

A bailiff authorised in accordance with S78 (6) of the RTA 1991 to recover parking debt. (This procedure is different in Scotland.)


An informal appeal to a council by a motorist against the issue of a parking or bus-lane PCN. A challenge against a Notice to Owner (see below) is call Formal Representations (see below).

Charge Certificate

A notice issued to motorists who have received a Penalty Charge Notice and subsequent Notice to Owner (in respect of parking only) but have not paid in the statutory time limits.
A Charge Certificate increases the full penalty charge by 50% and requires payment by 14 days from its service if registration of the debt is to be avoided.

Civil Enforcement

Control of parking and moving-traffic (bus-lane) contraventions by a council that is empowered under the Road Traffic Act 1991 and the Traffic Management Act 2004.

Civil Enforcement Authority

A council that is empowered to operate civil enforcement of parking and moving-traffic (bus-lane) Regulations.

Civil Enforcement Officer

A uniformed officer employed by - or on behalf of - a council to issue PCNs for parking contraventions under a civil enforcement scheme.


The immobilisation by a Parking Attendant (see below)/Civil Enforcement Officer (see above) of a vehicle deemed to be contravening a parking regulation.

Compelling Reasons

Reasons beyond the legal grounds for cancelling a penalty imposed by a council on a motorist for an alleged parking contravention.


A failure by a motorist to comply with parking Regulations that have been decriminalised (i.e., those for permitted parking and those in Special Parking Areas) or a provision relating to the use of an area of road reserved for a bus lane.


The independent Adjudicator has powers to award costs against either party to an appeal. The grounds for doing so are very few and such awards are extremely rare. Costs may be awarded if, in the opinion of the Adjudicator, either party has behaved in a "frivolous, vexatious or wholly unreasonable" fashion.


A local authority in England (outside London) and Wales that operates civil enforcement of parking and/or other traffic regulations.

County Court

The court where a debt is registered following non-payment of a Penalty Charge Notice fourteen days after the service of a Charge Certificate. Such debts are registered at the Traffic Enforcement Centre (TEC), currently attached to Northampton County Court.

Crime Reference Number

A reference number issued by the Police and attached to a crime reported by a member of the public - such as the theft of a vehicle.

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